Structure of photovoltaic module

In this article, you will learn how the photovoltaic module and the photovoltaic cell are built and how they work.


Solar cells

For the production of photovoltaic cells, silicon in the form of polycrystalline or monocrystalline wafers is most often used as a semiconductor material. This material, thanks to its physicochemical properties, is an excellent initiator of piezoelectric phenomena occurring in the PV panel.


budowa modulu fotowoltaicznego

construction of a photovoltaic module

Electroinsulating film and toughened glass

Manufactured in silicon technology, photovoltaic modules consist of cells connected in series or in parallel. The back side of the photovoltaic module is secured with an electro-insulating foil, the so-called backsheet, which also gives them an appropriate color effect (the most common color versions: white, black, transparent). On the other hand, the photovoltaic cells themselves are flooded with EVA foil, the so-called ethylene polyvinyl acetate, which fully encapsulates the cell matrix during the lamination process, thus protecting it against external factors. From the front side, i.e. from the sun, against mechanical damage, moisture and chemical compounds, the cells are protected by a tempered glass pane and high light transmittance, approx. 2-3.2 mm thick. Additional elements, which the PV module consists of, are an aluminum frame and a connection socket with cabling.


budowa ogniwa fotowoltaicznego

construction of a photovoltaic cell

Bruk-Bet Fotowoltaika modules

Our photovoltaic panels are made in silicon technology with PERC and PERT cells. The PERC type cell has a field on the back of the passive emitter layer resulting from the doping of silicon with aluminum. They improve the efficiency of the cell and prevent the entry of electrons and their recombination on the back surface of the cell, which translates into better yields of the photovoltaic installation.

PERT technology

PERT technology has a lower temperature coefficient and low light-induced degradation. It is based on the use of N-type silicon, which is resistant to the LID phenomenon due to the lack of the formation of boroxyl complexes responsible for the decrease in efficiency. Hence, we offer a 30-year power warranty for modules with N-type cells. The high efficiency is due to the greater tolerance of silicon N to impurities with the simultaneous use of phosphate as an admixture.

Glass-glass modules

Glass-to-glass modules are a trend that has emerged on the photovoltaic market in recent years. In contrast to the standard modules made of glass and back foil, two glass panes are used for their production. They can use traditional cells, as well as bifacial, i.e. double-sided, which increase the efficiency of the modules and strengthen the protection of the panel against external factors.

ogniwo fotowoltaiczne jak zrobic

photovoltaic cell – construction


Anti-reflective layer

In order to increase the penetration of light into the production module, glass with ARC (Anti Reflective Coating) coating is used, thanks to which the products obtain guaranteed, higher power from a smaller surface. This is not a standard on the market, but all Bruk-Bet Photovoltaic modules have an anti-reflective layer, which significantly affects the quality of the modules and their guaranteed performance over the years.

Other components of the PV module

For the construction of our modules, we use sockets with five conducting paths and 3 bypass diodes. We offer a connection socket in the standard version and with optimization. The connection socket with optimization allows the panels to work with maximum power in all conditions. Bypass diodes protect the panel against overheating and a significant reduction in the amount of generated electricity caused by e.g. phenomenon of the so-called shading.



How to choose the power of a photovoltaic installation

The power of a photovoltaic plant depends mainly on the annual electricity consumption. For this purpose, the real electricity consumption during the year, expressed in kilowatt hours [KWh], is counted. It is also worth taking into account the projected energy consumption in the coming years, which may be influenced by the installation of the heat pump. In order to calculate the approximate amount of electricity that will be produced by the PV system during the year, multiply the power of the installation by 1000 expressed in kilowatts [kW]. Of course, this is a simplified method, but it is sufficient to check whether the available roof area is sufficient for a photovoltaic generator.

An analysis of the demand for electricity from a PV installation is usually performed by a representative of an installation company during an on-site audit.

Does the photovoltaic system work during a power failure?

In the event of a power grid failure or a power cut, the photovoltaic system shuts down. This is due to the inverters connected directly to the grid, which, according to the regulations, must be equipped with an anti-islanding protection, in order to shut down the installation in the event of a power outage.

Do solar panels only work when there is sun and a cloudless sky?

PV cells do not need intense sun to work efficiently and produce enough electricity to meet the needs of a household. Moreover, they do not need cloudless skies to produce electricity. PV modules react to scattered light and, even on cloudy days, capture different wavelengths of light that reach the cell surface despite dense cloud layers. On rainy and cloudy days, however, they generate approx. 40% less electricity than on sunny days.

What the off-grid and on-grid symbols mean

The installation of photovoltaic panels can operate in an on-grid or off-grid system. The on-grid installation (the so-called network installation) is connected to the grid and transfers the surplus electricity to the grid of the energy operator. In the off-grid system, the installation is cut off from the power grid and operates as an independent system. This type of connection is used in places where we do not have access to the network or where we want to be 100% energy independent. In such cases, the electricity generated by the installation is intended solely for the needs of the user. However, it is connected with the necessity to equip the system with batteries for storing surplus electricity.

rama panelu
bruk bet solar - producent paneli


15uM anodization

szyba panelu
bruk bet solar - producent paneli


3.2mm thickness

folia eva
bruk bet solar - producent paneli


PID Free

macierz ogniw fotowoltaicznych
bruk bet solar - producent paneli


Technology: PERC

folia modulu
bruk bet solar - producent paneli


PID Free

podstawa panelu
bruk bet solar - producent paneli


Increased resistance to UV radiation

Structure of
photovoltaic module

Bruk-Bet Fotowoltaika is a producer of high-quality monocrystalline modules in several flagship series. Our products consist of highly efficient solar cells made of crystalline silicon. The matrix of cells is protected from the outside by a tempered glass and electro-insulating EVA foil and secured with an anodized aluminum frame supplemented with a framing tape.